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Published Date: 2017-03-19 17:06:10

Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Rabies (09): Americas, El Salvador (CA) feline, OIE

Archive Number: 20170319.4911534
RABIES (09): AMERICAS, EL SALVADOR (CABANAS) FELINE, OIE

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International Society for Infectious Diseases

http://www.isid.org



Date: Thu 16 Mar 2017

Source: OIE, WAHID [edited]

http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=23258





Rabies, El Salvador

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Information received on 16 Mar 2017 from Dr Hector David Martinez Arias, Director General de Ganaderia, Division de Servicios Veterinarios, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Salvador, El Salvador



Summary

Report type: immediate notification (final report)

Date of start of the event: 18 Aug 2016

Date of confirmation of the event: 10 Oct 2016

Report date: 16 Mar 2017

Date submitted to OIE: 16 Mar 2017

Date event resolved: 16 Mar 2017

Reason for notification: Reoccurrence of a listed disease

Date of previous occurrence: 2013

Manifestation of disease: clinical disease

Causal agent: Rabies virus

Serotype: not typed

Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory (advanced)

This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.



New outbreaks (1)

Summary of outbreaks:

Total outbreaks: 1

Outbreak 1: Cabanas, San Francisco El Dorado, San Isidro, Cabanas

Date of start of the outbreak: 10 Aug 2016

Outbreak status: resolved on 16 Mar 2017

Epidemiological unit: village

Affected animals:

Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered

Cats / - / 1 / 0 / 1 / 0



Affected population: The case occurred in a cat of unknown age which was in the housing of the owner. The animal attacked 2 people, who were then put under observation and received the appropriate immunization. It was in contact with another cat and a horse, which did not present clinical signs or teeth marks during the check-up and the follow-up; they remained under observation for 15 days.



Epidemiology

Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or inconclusive



Epidemiological comments: The rabies case was notified by the Ministry of health (MINSAL) to the Epidemiological surveillance section of the Veterinary services of the Ministry of agriculture and livestock, after the MINSAL Reference national laboratory diagnosed it positive. According to the Reference World Laboratory of the Health Secretary of State, the Pasteur Institute, the linage of the virus is genetically compatible with that of the virus isolated in an insectivorous bat, _Tadarida brasiliensis_. Nevertheless, the direct source of infection remains unknown. A screening in all susceptible species was performed within a 5-km radius around the outbreak to identify animals bitten by a bat. Activities were coordinated with municipal representatives and staff from the MINSAL



Control measures

Measures applied: quarantine; surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone; surveillance within containment and/or protection zone; zoning; no treatment of affected animals;



Vaccination in response to the outbreak(s):

Administrative division / Species / Total vaccinated / Details

Cabanas / Cats / 943 / Total of vaccinated animals: 3143 (943 cats and 2200 dogs)



Measures to be applied: No other measures



Diagnosis test results

Laboratory name and type / Species / Test date / Result

Pasteur Institute (Foreign laboratory) / Cats / reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) / 18 Oct 2016 / Positive



Future reporting

The event is resolved. No more reports will be submitted.



[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]



--

Communicated by:

ProMED-mail

<promed@promedmail.org>



["Rabies has the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. When a person is exposed to an animal suspected of having rabies, the risk of rabies virus transmission should be evaluated carefully. Risk assessment should include consideration of the species of animal involved, the prevalence of rabies in the area, whether exposure sufficient to transmit rabies virus occurred, and the current status of the animal and its availability for diagnostic testing. Wild carnivores and bats present a considerable risk where the disease is found, regardless of whether abnormal behavior has been observed. Insectivorous bats, though small, can inflict wounds with their teeth and should never be caught or handled with bare hands. Bat bites may be ignored or go unnoticed, so direct contact with bats could be considered a risk of virus exposure.



Any wild carnivore or bat suspected of exposing a person to rabies should be considered rabid unless proved otherwise by laboratory diagnosis; ideally, this includes bats in direct contact with people, such as those found in rooms with sleeping or otherwise unaware persons. Wildlife, including wolf hybrids, should never be kept as pets; if one of those animals exposes a person or domestic animal, the wild animal should be managed like free-ranging wildlife." (http://www.merckmanuals.com/vet/nervous_system/rabies/overview_of_rabies.html)



Maps of El Salvador can be seen at, http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/el_salvador_map.htm. - Mod.CRD



A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/21.]

See Also

Rabies (08): Americas 20170212.4832762

Rabies (07): Americas (Colombia) human, feline bite 20170205.4817401

Rabies (05): Americas (Brazil) vampire bat, human exp 20170116.4768775

Rabies (03): Americas (Peru) bat, human susp 20170109.4752050

Rabies (02): Americas (Puerto Rico) mongoose, human, comment 20170107.4747871

Rabies (01): Americas (Puerto Rico) mongoose, human, 2015 20170106.4746696

2016

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Rabies - Americas (43): USA (NY) fox, human exposure: 20161230.4733366

Rabies - Americas (34): USA (NJ) raccoon, human exposure 20160823.4436877

Rabies - Americas (33): USA, Canada, equine, wildlife, bat, human exp 20160822.4431895

Rabies - Americas (32): USA, wildlife, bat, human exposure 20160815.4416428

Rabies - Americas (31): USA (MA) wildlife, human exposure 20160810.4407136

Rabies - Americas (30): USA, canine, feline, groundhog, skunk, human exposure 20160807.4400418

Rabies - Americas (20): USA (RI) susp mink, human exposures 20160707.4329963

Rabies - Americas (10): USA (GA) feline, raccoon, human exposure 20160415.4162669

Rabies - Americas (05): USA (VA) raccoon, fox, human exposure 20160312.4088493

Rabies - Americas (04): USA 20160215.4023314

Rabies - Americas (03): USA 20160124.3962370

Rabies - Americas (02): comment 20160104.3908827

Rabies - Americas (01): USA (NJ,VA) Canada (ON) 20160102.3906117

Rabies - Americas (41): Belize, bovine, increase, OIE 20161115.4629279

Rabies & Clostridium disease - Belize: bovine 20160311.4084861

2015

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Rabies - French Guiana (02): (CY) canine, OIE 20150904.3624448

Rabies - French Guiana: canine, human exposure, RFI 20150903.3620512

Rabies - Brazil: (RN ex PB) human, feline exposure 20150901.3616621

Rabies - Honduras: (CL) bovine, OIE 20150414.3297412

2014

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Rabies - Costa Rica (02): (SJ) bovine 20140801.2652582

Rabies - Uruguay (02): (CL) bovine, ovine, OIE 20140413.2400798

Rabies - Uruguay: (CL) bovine, ovine, OIE 20140403.2376692

2012

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Rabies - Honduras: (YO) canine 20120820.1252110

2011

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Rabies, canine - Honduras 20110114.0155

2004

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Rabies, human, dog - El Salvador 20040409.0969

Rabies, human, dog - Paraguay 20040119.0217

2002

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Rabies, human - El Salvador 20020522.4298

2001

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Rabies, human, animal - Costa Rica (02) 20011107.2761

Rabies, human, animal - Costa Rica 20011105.2740

Rabies, human - Costa Rica 20011031.2690

Rabies, human, suspected - Costa Rica 20011007.2429

Rabies, canine - Guatemala 20010101.0002

1999

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Rabies, human - Honduras: background 19990525.0874

Rabies, human - Honduras 19990523.0852

1997

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Rabies, dogs - Belize (02) 19970923.1992

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